The research for this paper was commissioned by the Transatlantic Council for its 2018 meeting in Brussels devoted to the theme of “Building Migration Systems for a New Age of Economic Competitiveness.” The paper explores the implication of the changing world of work for immigrant selection systems, highlighting key challenges such as predicting future labor-market needs, balancing employer demand with human-capital considerations, and building capacity for regional variation into selection processes. The authors argue for a flexible system of immigrant selection using innovative methodologies for assessing labor-market needs. They summarize the advantages and disadvantages of employer-driven selection systems, e.g. allowing immigrants to fill hiring vacancies vs. human capital-focused systems, e.g. assigning points for qualifications such as levels of education and host country language proficiency, acknowledging that elements of the two systems can be combined into one.